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Special Topic Report 96-04
THE GLOBE WIRELESS NETWORK
                            by Ary Boender

This WUN special report is a review of the vast maritime network of Globe
Wireless. I'd like to express my gratitude to the people at Globe's for
their kind co-operation and for providing all this info.  -Ary Boender-
The Globe Wireless Network

--------------------------

Globe Wireless (formerly KFS World Communications) based in Half Moon
Bay, California, is a maritime communications service provider dedicated
to the modernization of HF radio for marine applications. The new service,
GlobeEmail, is revolutionizing HF radio data communications. A complete
range of data communication services - including electronic mail, fax,
telex and telegrams - is available worldwide. The company offers all
messaging services through the Global Radio Network of HF coastal radio
stations.
o QSL info
  Reception data from numerous receiving locations, worldwide, is needed
  to confirm the coverage area of the network, and especially the newer
  stations. For this reason, the Globe Wireless Engineering Department
  is requesting assistance from interested listeners.

  Send in your reception reports and you will receive a handsome QSL
  card suitable for display in your radio shack. Every listener is
  eligible to receive one QSL card for each Globe Wireless coast station
  received and correctly reported. Reports are needed from ships at sea,
  as well as listeners on shore.

  "We find reception reports from listeners extremely useful,"  said Rod
  Deakin, Chief Engineer, Globe Wireless. "They include valuable technical
  information and we are happy to send QSL cards in return."

  Globe Wireless SITOR transmitters can be easily recognized. They broadcast
  a unique "free signal" pattern, followed by the station's call sign, when
  not otherwise in use. Similarly, available CW transmitters broadcast a
  repetitive "wheel" including the call sign and other information. The 6
  traditional maritime HF bands - 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 22 megahertz - are
  utilized by Globe Wireless stations.
  To be of maximum value to the Globe Wireless Engineering staff,
  reception reports should contain the following information:
  # Date and Time (UTC) of your reception
    Call Sign (QRA) of the Globe Wireless network station heard
    Either the actual frequency (QRG), or ITU channel number
    Mode of transmission heard (SITOR, CW, etc.)
    Signal strength (QSA) and quality
    Any interference (QRM) heard on frequency, or on adjacent channels
  # Did you hear traffic or idle signals? If traffic, whom was Globe
    working?
    Model number of receiver and type of antenna used
    Location (QTH) of your receiving station
    Any other comments
  Include a complete mailing address with all reports so that Globe may
  send your QSL card by return post. Ships are requested to include
  either the address of the vessel's home port or the Radio Officer's
  personal address. Please send your reception reports for all Global
  Radio Network stations to:

  GLOBE WIRELESS
  ATTN.: ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
  ONE MEYN ROAD
  HALF MOON BAY, CA 94019 USA

o Palo Alto Radio / KFS
  Palo Alto Radio, call sign KFS, is a proud and historic radio station
  on the West coast of the United States. It has been on the air, conti-
  nuously, since 1912, including throughout both World Wars. It is the
  flagship station of Globe Wireless.

  Transmit site
  The KFS transmit site is located in the city of Palo Alto, (Santa
  Clara county) California. The Latitude is 37 degrees, 26 minutes and
  44 seconds North; the Longitude is 122 degrees, 06 minutes and 44
  seconds West; and the ground elevation is 5 feet. The site is in a
  marshy area near the southern end of San Francisco Bay. The antenna
  complement includes twelve full-wave dipoles, two inverted cones and
  a loaded vertical for MF. Seventeen transmitters are in use for CW,
  SITOR and GlobeEmail service on MF and HF. Some Press Wireless (World
  War II vintage) transmitters are still on-line.
  The base of the original antenna tower with its 1921 inscription is
  still visible. The landline call sign of the site used to be MX for
  Marsh Transmitter.

  Receive site
  The receivers for KFS are located six miles south of Half Moon Bay,
  (San Mateo county) California. The Latitude is 37 degrees, 23 minutes
  and 03 seconds North; the Longitude is 122 degrees, 24 minutes and 38
  seconds West. The site is on a 150 foot cliff overlooking the Pacific
  Ocean. The antenna complement includes three log-periodic dipole arrays,
  several wire V-beams and several rhombics. The receivers in use for CW
  are Watkins-Johnson model 8271 and for SITOR TCI 8074 are used.
  The landline call sign of the site used to be LO for Lobitos Creek
  which runs into the ocean on the Southern boundary of the 200 acre
  property.
o Hawaii Radio / KEJ
  Hawaii Radio, call sign KEJ, is a new coastal radio station constructed
  by Globe Wireless in early 1995. It is located on the island of Molokai
  in the Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean.

  Transmit site
  The KEJ transmit site is located near Kahalelani, Maui county, Hawaii.
  The Latitude is 21 degrees, 10 minutes and 45 seconds North; the Longi-
  tude is 157 degrees, 10 minutes and 49 seconds West; and the ground
  elevation is 640 feet.
  The antenna complement is five quarter-wave vertical's with elevated
  ground planes. Five Henry two kilowatt transmitters are in use for
  SITOR service on HF.

  Receive site
  The receivers for KEJ are also located near Kahalelani. The shared
  receive antenna is an omni-directional cone array. The receivers in
  use are TCI model 8074.
o Goteberg Radio / SAB
  Goteberg Radio, call sign SAB, operates Globe Wireless transmitters
  from a location in Sweden. The station is owned and maintained by
  Telia Mobitel, a Swedish company..

  Transmit site
  The SAB transmit site is located near Gteberg, Sweden. The Latitude
  is 57 degrees, 28 minutes North; the Longitude is 11 degrees, 56
  minutes East. Six transmitters are in use for SITOR and GlobeEmail
  service on HF.

  Receive site
  The receivers for SAB are also located near Gteberg, Sweden.

o Slidell Radio / WNU
  Slidell Radio, call sign WNU, is a proud and historic radio station
  on the Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States near New Orleans,
  Louisiana. The station was first constructed to provide communication
  with banana boats loading in Central America and sailing to the United
  States mainland. It was operated for many years by Tropical Radio and
  Telegraph (TRT).

  Transmit site
  The transmitters for WNU are located near Pearl River, (St. Tammany
  parish) Louisiana. The Latitude is 30 degrees, 22 minutes and 12 secs

  North; the Longitude is 89 degrees, 47 minutes and 26 seconds West; and
  the ground elevation is 26 feet. Twenty one transmitters are in use for
  CW and SITOR service on MF and HF.

  Receive site
  The receivers for WNU are located on Radio Road near Pearl River,
  Louisiana... The antenna complement... Most of the receivers in use
  are Watkins-Johnson model 8274.

o VCT Radio
  VCT is located the island of Newfoundland in the northwest Atlantic
  Ocean. The facilities for VCT are provided and operated by NEWEAST
  TELEOCEANICS, a Globe Wireless partner. NewEast also operates Tors
  Cove Radio (CHC419) that provides HF SSB voice services for an area
  of 1500 nautical miles around Newfoundland.

  Transmit site
  The VCT transmit site is located 40 kilometers south of St. John's,
  Newfoundland, Canada. The Latitude is 47 degrees, 14 minutes North;
  the Longitude is 52 degrees, 51 minutes West.
  Four Collins HF-80 transmitters, with one kilowatt of output power,
  are in use for SITOR and GlobeEmail service on HF.

  Receive site
  The receivers for VCT are located near ???, Newfoundland, Canada.
  Most of the receivers in use are made by Collins.

o Awanui Radio / ZLA
  Awanui Radio, call sign ZLA, is a new coastal radio station constructed
  by Globe Wireless in 1995. It is located on the north island of New
  Zealand, in the Southern Pacific Ocean. Operation of the station is
  controlled from Globe Wireless headquarters in California.
  The transmitter installation is located at a historical radio site on
  Wireless Road, between Kaitaia and Awanui, in the North Island. Commis-
  sioned in 1913 "Radio Awanui was New Zealand's main station for commu-
  nications with ships," according to information provided by the Far
  North Regional Museum in Kaitaia, New Zealand. A Telefunken quenched
  spark system was used for transmission. The original station was dis-
  mantled in 1930 and the area has been used for farming since then. The
  call sign used by the original station, ZLA, is once again in use.

  Transmit site
  The ZLA transmit site is located near Awanui, New Zealand. The Latitude
  is 30 degrees, 00 minutes South; the Longitude is 175 degrees, 00 mins
  West.
  Eight Henry two kilowatt transmitters are in use for SITOR service on
  HF. The antennas are individual omni-directional vertical arrays for
  each marine band in use.
  Receive site
  The receivers for ZLA are also located near Awanui, New Zealand, about
  ten miles from the transmit site. The shared antenna is an omni-direc-
  tional discone. The receivers in use are TCI 8074.

o New Station - Bahrain Radio / A9M
  Bahrain Radio is located in the central Arabian Gulf and offers superb
  coverage of the INDIAN OCEAN and extended coverage from the EASTERN
  MEDITERRANEAN SEA to the WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN
  Globe's construction crew is currently busy in the desert atmosphere
  on the island of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf constructing antennas and
  installing transmitters, receivers and radio equipment. This station is
  expected to become operational later this summer.
o New Station - Perth Radio / VIP
  Located in the Southwest corner of the Australian continent, Perth
  Radio offers excellent coverage of the Eastern Indian Ocean and the
  Southwestern Pacific Ocean.
  TELSTRA, the Australian telephone company, will be using existing radio
  equipment for Globe Wireless services. Installation of the new data
  equipment and the connection to Half Moon Bay is expected to be completed
  by this fall.

o More new stations
  MCI and Globe Wireless have recently announced an agreement under which
  Globe will acquire the licenses of MCI coastal stations CHATHAM RADIO/WCC
  and SAN FRANCISCO RADIO/KPH. The changeover of services is expected to be
  completed by September.
o Dixon Transmit Site
  Globe Wireless has acquired a radio transmitting location previously
  used by the VOICE OF AMERICA. The former DIXON RELAY STATION, located
  eight miles Southeast of Dixon, California, will be used to connect
  vessels in the Pacific Ocean with land based electronic mail systems,
  including the Internet.
  The history of the Dixon Relay Station goes back more than fifty years.
  Construction began for the radio transmitting facility at the 640 acre
  Dixon site in 1943. The Voice of America used the Dixon location,
  starting in 1944, to broadcast information and entertainment to short-
  wave radio listeners in Asia and the Pacific. Until 1963, the NATIONAL
  BROADCASTING COMPANY (NBC) operated the site under contract to the US
  Government. Transmissions from the Dixon Relay Station ceased in 1983.
  The VOA used three COLLINS 250 kilowatt transmitters and two GENERAL
  ELECTRIC 100 kilowatt transmitters when the facility was operational.
  Still remaining on the site are two massive dipole curtain arrays and
  ten rhombic antennas, most still in operating condition. Skeletons of
  the GE and Collins transmitters also remain.
  Globe Wireless plans to install transmitters and antennas for its
  maritime public coast station KFS at the new site. The current KFS
  transmitter location, in Palo Alto, California, will be phased out of
  operation over the next few years.
  According to company officials, Globe Wireless may also relocate the
  transmitters for public coast station KPH to the new Dixon location.
  Transfer of that station's license to Globe Wireless from MCI INTER-
  NATIONAL is pending FCC approval. The MCI station currently transmits
  from Bolinas, California.
  AERONAUTICAL RADIO, INC. (ARINC) will sub-lease space at the Dixon site
  from Globe Wireless. ARINC is installing transmitters to communicate
  with the flight crews of aircraft flying over the Pacific Ocean and
  South America.

o Global Radio Network frequencies and services
  Effective: 3 March 1995, the following ITU NBDP channels and frequencies
  listed below are in use by the coastal radio stations in the Global Radio
  Network. Most channels are in operation 24 hours a day.

            Xmit  frequencies
   Channel  Shore      Ship     c/s
   ------- ------------------   ---
     401    4210.5     4172.5   WNU
     402    4211.0     4173.0   ZLA
     403    4211.5     4173.5   KFS
     416    4217.5     4180.0   VCT
     418    4218.5     4181.0   SAB
            4300.4     4154.5   KEJ
     602    6315.0     6263.5   ZLA
     603    6315.5     6264.0   KFS
     625    6326.0     6275.0   KEJ
     626    6326.5     6275.5   SAB
     627    6327.0     6281.0   WNU
     632    6329.5     6283.5   VCT
     802    8417.0     8377.0   ZLA
     803    8417.5     8377.5   KFS
     819    8425.5     8385.5   WNU
     830    8431.0     8391.0   KEJ
     837    8434.5     8394.5   SAB
     838    8435.0     8395.0   VCT
    1202   12580.0    12477.5   ZLA
    1203   12580.5    12478.0   KFS
    1219   12588.5    12486.0   WNU
    1257   12607.5    12505.0   WNU
    1263   12610.5    12508.0   VCT
    1265   12611.5    12509.0   KEJ
    1291   12624.0    12522.0   SAB
    1347   12652.0    12555.0   SAB
    1602   16807.5    16684.0   ZLA
    1647   16829.5    16706.5   KFS
    1657   16834.5    16711.5   WNU
    1673   16842.5    16719.5   KEJ
    1676   16844.0    16721.0   VCT
    1691   16851.5    16728.5   SAB
    2203   22377.5    22285.5   KFS

o Traffic Lists
  The combined network traffic list is broadcast from all stations via
  Sitor-B, as noted.

  c/s  station / location                        traffic list
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  VCT  St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada              H +05
  KEJ  Hawaii, Pacific Ocean                        H +15
  KFS  Palo Alto (San Francisco) California, USA    H +25
  SAB  Goteborg Radio, Sweden                       H +35
  ZLA  Awanui, New Zealand                          H +45
  WNU  Slidell Radio, Louisiana, USA                H +55

o Super CW-stations

  # Palo Alto Radio / KFS
  Palo Alto Radio, call sign KFS, is a proud and historic radio station
  on the West coast of the United States. It has been on the air, conti-
  nuously, since 1912, including throughout both World Wars. It is the
  flagship station of the Globe Wireless CW Super-Stations.

  # Slidell Radio / WNU
  Slidell Radio, call sign WNU, is a proud and historic radio station
  on the Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States near New Orleans,
  Louisiana.


  - Palo Alto Radio, KFS, broadcasts via CW on 476, 8558.4, 12844.5,
    17026 and 22581.5 kHz
  - Traffic lists are broadcast by KFS at 25 minutes past each hour. The
    combined traffic list is sent from all CW Super-Station locations.
  - KFS broadcasts Pacific High Seas weather at 0450, 1050, 1650 and
    2250 UTC.
  - KFS broadcasts the American Radio Association (ARA) newsletter on
    Sunday at 0517 UTC.
  - Slidell Radio, WNU, broadcasts via CW on 478, 4310, 8570, 12826.5,
    17117.6 and 22575.5 kHz
  - Traffic lists are broadcast by WNU at 55 minutes past each hour. The
    combined traffic list is sent from all CW Super-Station locations.
  - WNU broadcasts Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean Sea weather at 0350, 0950,
    1550, and 2150 UTC.

 -  Operating Frequencies.

             Palo Alto          ship
   ------------------------------------
   4 MHz   4274.0              4185.0
   8 MHz   8444.5    8558.4    8368.5
  12 MHz  12695.5   12844.5   12552.5
  16 MHz  17026.0   17184.8   16736.5
  22 MHz  22581.5   22282.5

             Slidell            ship
  -------------------------------------
   4 MHz   4294.0    4183.0    4310.0
   6 MHz   6389.5              6278.0
   8 MHz   8525.0    8570.0    8367.0
  12 MHz  12826.5   12869.0   12551.0
  16 MHz  17038.0   17117.6   16735.0
  22 MHz  22575.5   22281.5

o GlobeTOR
  The GlobeTOR auto-forward radio telex service extends the benefits of
  modern computer E-Mail forwarding technology to maritime communications.
  This "time shift" capability allows both ship and shore users to send
  and respond to messages at their convenience. For SHIP-TO-SHORE traffic,
  messages are delivered to the shore destination immediately upon filing
  by the ship. After normal business hours, messages can be delivered to
  alternate shore destinations (e.g., by telephone to key management at
  home). This service is available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a
  week.
  For SHORE-TO-SHIP messages, the ship's call sign is broadcast several
  times each hour in the Global Radio Network traffic list. Pending
  traffic is listed by, and available from, all Global Radio Network
  stations. Arrangements can be made to immediately deliver messages by
  automatically calling cooperating ships.
  The "time shift" capability of the automatic forwarding technology means
  the shipboard Radio Officer can send his telex message, for instance,
  even if the destination telex machine is otherwise engaged. There is
  never a busy signal!
  Ship to shore messages are normally delivered electronically within
  seconds, often while the ship is still in contact with the station.

  Shipboard operation
  By using the proper command, the ship originating a message may specify
  the delivery method to be used when forwarding to a shore destination.
  Methods currently available include automatic telex (AUTOTLX+), elec-
  tronic mail (EMAIL+), facsimile (FAX+), cable telegram (TGM+) and radio
  telex letter, via the U.S. Postal Service (RTL+).

o GlobeWeather
  No matter what ocean, sea, bay, lake, river or port you are sailing in,
  you can obtain the latest available weather conditions and forecasts
  from one, reliable, source - GlobeWeather. Weather agencies from around
  the world feed information into the GlobeWeather database 24 hours a day.
  Never again will you have to wait hours for the next scheduled weather
  broadcast. GlobeWeather can provide the products you need, when you need
  them. - any time, night or day, from any Global Radio Network coast
  station, worldwide.

o GlobeEmail
  In the last twenty years, almost all of the technological advancements
  in commercial marine communications have been directed at satellite.
  This is in marked contrast to the military, where high frequency (HF)
  radio has received significant technological research. Globe Wireless
  has taken the concepts developed by the military over these two decades
  (and recently declassified), plus the availability of computer-controlled
  HF radios, to build a global communications system. The system is much
  cheaper to operate than a satellite system while at the same time
  offering the capabilities of such a system and then some.

  GlobeEmail is an automated system, both on the shore side, and on the
  ship. Every GlobeEmail ship has a copy of a software program written
  by Globe and a dual mode modem. The user on the ship uses the simple
  e-mail interface in this program to send and receive messages, much the
  same as we do on Internet. Another part of this program is in control
  of the HF radio. It scans the radio, sampling every Global Radio Network
  channel and keeps a table of the six best, at any point in time. It also
  watches the Out Box of the E-mail program, and when a message is placed
  there, it automatically links with (any) one of Globe's shore stations
  and sends it. Since all of the Globe stations are connected via landlines,
  the message actually comes to California for processing, no matter what
  station the ship calls. Shore to ship messages are automatically sent in
  a similar way. Like there are function commands for telex, direct dial-
  ling telex, fax and many other services, there are also commands for the
  e-mail service. For Internet the command is INTyyy+, for instance, and
  for a private cc:Mail system the command is CCMyyy+ ('yyy' is replaced
  with the actual e-mail address, as appropriate). Ships not equipped with
  GlobeEmail can use these commands also. In the case of GlobeEmail, the
  initial connection is always made in SITOR. If the message is text only,
  and short, it is just sent in SITOR, if not both the ship and the shore
  station will switch to a special form of CLOVER so that full binary data
  can be transferred.
  GlobeEmail is strictly a computer-to-computer connection. To prevent an
  error in the address line (SITOR is not always error-free), a four digit
  error-detecting code is added at the beginning of the messages.

  Globe Wireless designed GlobeEmail to overcome the deficiencies of
  past marine communications systems - radio and satellite. GlobeEmail
  is a software system that provides easy, intuitive message creation,
  that controls the radio to send (and receive) messages automatically,
  and that transmits any file - text, graphic or binary - much faster
  than has previously been possible via radio. This is the latest High
  Frequency radio technology, spawned by the military but reduced to
  commercially reasonable costs, to extend modern office communications
  to ships at sea. It literally makes marine communications as easy
  and as reliable as electronic mail at a cost far less than satellite.

  A new radio modem removes the restriction of alphanumeric characters
  and allows the transmission of any file that can be sent on a phone
  line. Facsimiles, word processing documents, spreadsheets, diagrams,
  maps, data files and even computer programs can now be sent by radio.
  The speed has increased tenfold today and will be increased another
  fourfold within a year. Sophisticated, error-correcting, transmission
  protocols have increased the reliability to an estimated 99.98%.
  A network of stations around the world, linked to a central control
  point, provides coverage world-wide, including the polar regions.
  In each characteristic - speed, reliability, coverage - GlobeEmail
  exceeds Standard C satellite performance.


  The combination of sophisticated Digital Signal Processing mathematics
  and computer control technology with ionosphere transmission of radio
  waves produces the lowest available underlying marine communications
  costs. Globe Wireless does not have to pay for, and thus its prices
  need not cover, the cost of satellites and complicated earth stations.
  Globe Wireless customers need not install expensive shipboard satellite
  equipment, but can instead use standard HF radios and inexpensive

  computers.. All of these lead to a long-term lower cost of GlobeEmail
  than of satellite.

  Furthermore, GlobeEmail prices are based on delivered kilobits of info,
  not the time the circuit is open, as do most satellite systems. This
  eliminates the cost of expensive retries and dropped links that the
  satellite customer's incur where little or no usable data is actually
  transmitted.

  GlobeEmail uses a patented modem technology that allows HF radio to
  transmit binary files. Before the introduction of GlobeEmail, radio
  telex (SITOR) was the most sophisticated protocol available to ships.
  Radio telex has a very limited character set and is unable to transmit
  files such as word processing documents, spreadsheets, or interact with
  on line services. A new technology, named CLOVER, brings all of these
  features to HF radio. This new technology also dramatically improves
  the throughput available on HF radio. Radio telex operates at 50 bits
  per second. GlobeEmail, using CLOVER, will move data at a rate of 2400
  bits per second.
  CLOVER is robust even under the poorest propagation conditions due
  to its use of a very low base data rate that relies upon differential
  modulation between pulses. The CLOVER signal fits perfectly within
  existing channel allocations because it consists of a time sequence
  of amplitude-shaped pulses. Its data throughput is always the highest
  possible since the CLOVER modem is capable of shifting among ten
  different modulation modes using various combinations of frequency,
  phase-shift and amplitude modulation.

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