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ALE Information

Photo: ALE control panel from a US Army UH-60L helicopter


 ALE INFORMATION FILE...Stitched together and updated by occasional WUN
contributor Jim Dunnett (RGA).

 This seventh update to the original jottings of 31 December 1999 is no
big deal, it simply adds a few additional comments which have come to
hand by 7 April 2003.

 New material is marked with a vertical bar '|' in the first column.

(There are no page-breaks in this file)


       o  An Intro to ALE, by Day Watson.

       o  Some ALE references, Internet Sites with
          Information etc.

       o  Setting up and running the Program.

       o  Using the program as a scanner.
          Organising scan files.

       o  Notes on the ALE Controller Program by
          the Author, Charles Brain, G4GUO.

       o  Identities of some of the ALE addresses seen so
          far, and a list of some ALE frequencies seen up
          to mid-January 2000).

       o  An Interpretation exercise.


[From Day Watson, published in one of the WUN newsletters]

::: Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) - an introduction


 The problem with setting up a circuit on HF is that it can be time
consuming.  Modern technology and computers have now made it possible to
automate this function achieving a higher percentage of first time and
reliable link-up than can be obtained with an operator.

 A number of stations associated with a particular organisation each make
use of a single SSB transmitter/receiver (or transceiver) under the
control of an ALE Controller.  This group of stations will operate on a
selection of frequencies thereby coping with the variants of link quality
brought about by both distance and time, and of course interference.

 The ALE controller of the master and/or the outstations can periodically
or irregularly send out a "sounding" burst.  There are a number of
variants on this theme but I won't go into the complexity at this time.
The sounding burst may/may not require a response from other stations but
each station can be identified.  When any station is not sending it must
conversely be receiving.  Not only that its ALE controller will be
causing its receiver to scan through the designated frequency channels
specific to that net's operation (this is normally done on the basis of 2
or 5 channels per second) where the controller software is looking for a
data burst containing its unique address or an address for which it is
part of multiple station operations.

 Whilst normal operations take place there is a continual process of
link quality analysis (LQA).  The receiving station measures this
quality based on a bit error ratio and a signal/noise ratio (to
describe in its simplest terms).  The result of the analysis is to give a
score for that particular burst, the score being stored in memory.  Over
a period of time the ALE controller knows the current best frequency to
employ when wishing to link with an other.

 Station ABC wishes to link with station XYZ.  It's ALE controller uses
XYZ's identity in the call burst having set its transmitter to the
computed best frequency as based on the stored data.  The receiver
at the addressed station is scanning all the frequencies in the set and
stops when a burst appears on one of these channels.  It then determines
that it is being addressed and link-up is established.  There is no
need for the receiving operator to continually watch a set of frequencies
- he/she can be alerted which required.

 ALE is reputed to produce 80-90% first time connections as against the
estimated 35% when using traditional/manual procedures.  Use of
scanning eliminates the need for call scheduling and frequency/time

 The ALE controller in the linkup procedures uses tones (we'll enlarge on
this later) to/from the SSB equipment.  Once the link is established
the controller has the option of passing data in a low speed manner
using its internal provisions.  Alternatively it may be switched
manually or automatically to a second modem which provides high speed
FSK/PSK data, or voice, as far as the information transfer is concerned.

 So there in simple terms is what ALE is all about.


 What about the ALE waveform?  It is designed to pass through the AF
passband of standard SSB equipment.  It consists of 8 tones (MFSK). They
are located 250hz apart from 750hz to 2500hz.  The centre of the system
is at 1625 khz.  Whilst some of my colleagues use the assigned frequency
and add the 1.625 khz subcarrier offset I prefer to use the suppressed
carrier value for a number of reasons - eg 18003/carrier against
18004.6/assigned - but that's another story.  However if one tunes to
18003/usb one should eventually

  a.  hear a short watery/burbling kind of sound (always difficult to
      describe sound in the written word), and

  b.  see the tones in the USB if one has an audio spectrum display
     starting with the simplest "Spectrogram" as described in this column
     a couple of months back.

 Each tone is 8mS in duration.  This gives 125 symbols per second.  With
8 tones (symbols or elements) we can support 3 data bits per symbol.
This results in a transmitted data rate of 375 bits per second.

 ALE uses a standard word consisting of a 3-bit preamble and three 7-bit
ASCII character fields; a total of 24 bits per word.  The function of
each ALE word is designated by the code in the preamble and is related
to ALE's basic capabilities.  Eight word types are used:

 Depending on the preamble the 7-bit ASCII character fields are used to
specify individual address characters, or as ASCII text.

 Robustness of the system is achieved by the utilisation of a system of
triple redundancy in the transmission of ALE data, by interleaving the
data, and by use of Golay forward error correction (fec).

 The ALE system is designated Mil.Std 188-141A and is being taken up by
others outside the US military/SHARES network - Danish Mil., Algerian
diplo, Romanian diplo, Swedish diplo to name but a few.

 If you wish to dig deeper into the system I suggest you look at the web
My experience of this site is that the zipped report at the end failed
to unzip in spite of several downloads and I had to use the .pdf files


 So much for the theory.  It is now possible to decode/watch these
stations linking up etc.  There is a neat program in the form of a
188-141A Ale Controller.  It can be used for both Tx/Rx functions but
for the UTE monitor the receiver side is fine.  It was written for the
personal amusement of the author, but is available on his website for
others with an interest in the subject. Check out:   click on the ALE Controller tab.

 [ *****  Day's notes refer to the original version of the program *****]

 The program operates via the PC sound card.  There are two files, the
first which instals the program, the second which is COPIED into the
folder containing the installed files.  I find that on starting the
program (in W95) an error box appears advising "Cannot load
MScomm32.OCX". This lack does not seem to have affected the receive
functioning of the program.

 This is easily fixed, should it cause any problems. See the section
on setting up and running the ALE program.

 As it was written as a personal project and not intended for general
distribution there are no help files or documentation; and no implied

 [ **** I shall try to have the file ALE.HTM made available via the
   WUN Website. It includes notes by the author about the ALE
   Controller program. View with Internet Explorer or Netscape  **** ]

 One can run the program in two receive modes.
Single channel [Ch.00] using only the received audio from the receiver.
Channel scanning. This requires the addition of an RS232/V24 link between
one of the comports of the PC and the remote control port of the
receiver. This will allow the ALE controller to manage the receiver and
scan the designated channels.  A limited number of receivers are catered

 To date I've left all the CONFIGURATIONS/OPTIONS values as default.
In the Enable/Disable section I've set Display sound/Listen calls/Wild.

 Tune in the channel where one has heard ALE activity.  Eg 18003/usb
(generally a whole, occasionally a half, kHz point).  Click the
button with the black triangle (Resume scan) and wait for the next ALE
activity to happen.  Note that addresses are often limited to three

 Finally my thanks to the program's author, Charles Brain,  for the
following additional tips:

 "You have the trace mode enabled. This was designed for a low level HEX
trace of the protocol and not for general operation. The [E] means the
remote ALE stopped sending, and the [R} means the controller was unable
to match it to any of its own callsigns and has resumed scanning. I put
it in there for my own bug fixing.

 You want to enable display sounds and listen calls.

 Most of the other options are needed only when you using it as an ALE

 Items like All Calls determine whether the system will respond to an All
Call when scanning. DCD threshold sets the threshold when scanning; too
low and it will pause on every channel, too large and it will miss calls.

 In its start directory you will find a file called owlog.txt.  That is a
text file which contains all the received callsigns. Also if you go into
the Other address menus you can see who you have worked."

 With some systems disappearing or becoming less evident here's something
new for investigation.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

 You can get the program at:  The ALE Controller Program.
              click on the ALE Controller tab.

  Mac users can get Black Cat Systems' 'MultiMode' program which will
 decode ALE (and many other modes) from:

| Mike Agner recently reminded me that the SkySweeper decoder program will
| decode ALE. Get it from:

 For more information on ALE, try:
           (You'll need Adobe's Acrobat reader (Freeware))
           (Air Force tunes in radios for EMail link)

      (The latter site has sound samples of ALE in Real Audio format).

 Hopefully these are still active - I haven't checked them recently.

 Leif Dehio in Wiesbaden, a WUN member, has made available all sorts of
sound samples, including ALE, on his Web site at:

 The following are samples of modems used in conjunction with ALE:

 Also see WUN's 'Digital Signals FAQ' Sections 1B and 1D, and the Sounds
section of the WUN CD.

 There is IRC chat on the #flacom channel dedicated to ALE listening.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

Setting Up & Running the ALE Controller Program.

 Connect the receiver's audio output to either the Line-In or Mic-In on
the soundcard, and set their software levels by double clicking on
the volume icon in the system tray. You should hear the rig's audio
in the computer speakers.

 Run the file ALE.EXE.

 It is possible that, on running the program, a 'Cannot create
MSCOMM32.OCX' error will occur. Proceed as follows:

 o  Make sure that MSCOMM32.OCX is already present in C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.
 o  Make sure that REGSVR32.EXE is also present in C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.
 o  Enter the string 'REGSVR32:MSCOMM32.OCX' in a DOS box or at the Start|Run
    dialogue box of Windows. (You may possibly need to make that
    'C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\REGSVR32:MSCOMM32.OCX') This will solve the problem
    and PCALE will run.

 Use the Configurations|Options pull-down-menu (PDM) to get to the basic
settings. In the Enable/Disable panel tick 'All Calls', 'Any Calls',
'Display Sounds', 'Listen Calls', 'Wild', and 'Trace'. If you want to see
the low-level command strings tick 'Command Trace' as well. If you want
to see any operator chatter (opchat) which may accompany the link
setup, then tick both 'Trace' and 'Command Trace' - it produces a
rather untidy screen, but the value of the opchat as an aid to
identification may well make it worthwhile.

 Clear any other ticks and 'OK' out to the main screen. If you intend to
use the program as a scanner with a suitable receiver, then tick the
Freq display' box also, otherwise leave it un-ticked. You will also have
to select your radio in the 'Radio Type' box and select the correct
serial (COM) port in the parameters panel of the Options screen.

 Returning to the main screen, set the receiver to a quiet frequency and
adjust the gain levels such that the peaks in the spectrum display in
the 'Tune' panel on the main screen can only just be seen. The 'Volume'
panel does not work in my Windows '95 installation - The slider cannot
be moved. It only seems to work when scanning with the NRD545.

| (In respect of the NRD545 it is important to note that PC-ALE uses the
|receiver's memories to store the data from the scanfile, overwriting any
|data that may have been there before. If you use an NRD545 with PC-ALE, and
|the data stored in the memories is to be retained, then you must save the
|memories' data to disc before running PC-ALE.)

 Find a frequency with ALE activity. In the European evening the easiest
ones to try are 2250, 4841 and 5120 kHz. 4841 and 5120 may be audible in
the Americas in their evening as well. These frequencies are used by the
Danish military for short-term comms and use real callsigns as
identifiers, mostly in the 'OW' series. Any appropriate USAF frequency
can usually be relied upon to produce copious ALE activity.

 ALE activity is unmistakable. As Day Watson says, it's watery. A bubbling
interrupted sound usually in bursts with short intervals between them
which can go on for quite a few seconds sometimes. The audio files from
the sites listed above will help with identification of the ALE noises.
These can be used to test the soundcard and ALE Controller program setup
if you record them and then play them back into the soundcard. You can't
play them directly as the computer sound system will be needed for the
ALE program!

 As an aid to tuning, the 'Tune' Panel's spectrum display will show
all 8 tones of the ALE signal as vertical bars. These are centred
between the black vertical guide bars when the signal is correctly
tuned. I know the signal is often all too brief, but very generally
the frequency will be on a whole kiloHertz or half (.5) kHz point,
mostly USB but sometimes on LSB. If the receiver readout gives a
unlikely frequency, while other indications are that the signal is
correctly tuned; if the signal produces no output, consider that you
may be listening to the wrong sideband.

 If you are unable to scan using one of the supported scanning receivers
then leave the receiver tuned to a frequency where ALE activity is to
be found. Any ALE activity on the frequency will be processed by the
program. It is not necessary to use the scan function to monitor and
detect single-frequency activity.

 It will occasionally happen that good quality ALE signals will not be
processed. This is most likely due to the information we are looking
for being masked or encrypted. (See the description of the Application
Level (AL) box below). This is a rather rare occurrence.

| Other difficulties may be due to incorrect configuration of the computer's
|sound system. First thing to check is that the sound system is taking its
|input from the soundcard. Some multimedia programs change many of the sound
|system's parameters.  (I have Windows '98SE, if you have ME, XP and so on,
|setting up the sound system could be slightly different). At Start|Settings|
|Control Panel|Multimedia check that the Preferred Playback & Recording
|Devices are those associated with your soundcard. There will probably be
|several choices.  E.g. my soundcard is described there as "SB Live! Wave Out
|(and In) [DA00]".  Select yours.
| Next, check that the correct outputs from the soundcard are selected in
|software.  Double-click on the speaker/volume symbol on the taskbar. This
|will bring up a window having various panels related to the sound system's
|play parameters. You will require as a suggested minimum the Play Control,
|Line In, Microphone and Wave Direct-SC panels. If these are not in the window,
|click on Options|Properties, tick the facilities required and OK out of there.
|Having got the required panels, set all sliders to maximum and ensure that
|there are no ticks in the 'Mute' boxes associated with the panels.
| Next, do the same thing for the inputs (record). Double-click on the speaker
|/ volume icon on the taskbar, Options|Properties. Select (.) Recording and
|check that you have at least the Line In, Microphone and Wave panels ticked.
|[OK] will get you to the Record panels. Set all the sliders to maximum and 
|ensure that Line Input Select box is ticked. If for some reason you have to
|use the Microphone input to the soundcard, then tick the Microphone Select box
| With everything set up in software and the receiver connected to the
|soundcard, you should see some activity in the 'Tune' box in the PC-ALE
|program. You can ajust the software sliders so that the noise just produces
|'grass' in the 'Tune' box, but it is probably easier to adjust the level with
|the receiver's gain controls.
| Multimedia applications will almost certainly alter any or all of these
|settings, so if things in ALE look less than encouraging, then re-check the
|validity of the settings needed for PC-ALE.
| If the receiver is scanning properly and you hear ALE bursts which PC-ALE
|does not recognise, then one of two things is wrong. Either the ALE burst you
|are listening to is link-protected (the Swiss diplomatic service uses this
|facility) to which there is no solution, the burst is in the other sideband or
|is off frequency. If you can identify the frequency concerned in the scanfile,
|then modify the sideband or produce a special 'search' scanfile with entries
|from a couple of kilohertz above and below the suspect frequency, using both
|USB and LSB. Provided the frequency is not link-protected, this strategy will
|eventually reveal the correct frequency and sideband for the errant scanfile

 When an ALE signal is detected the information box at the bottom left
of the window will change from 'STOPPED' to 'SYNCHED' and when the ALE
burst is finished, the processed information will appear in the bottom
pane of the program screen, after which the info box will revert to
'STOPPED'. ('STOPPED' refers to the scanning function, it does not
mean that the program has stopped listening!)

 An addition in v1.03j was a facility to record audio to a .WAV
file on hard disc. I have found that it tends to record any
activity which comes up following an ALE burst, including modem
activity. You may find it useful. Its parameters can be accessed via
the PDM Configuration|Recorder and allows the facility to be disabled,
the maximum recording period for one session and the directory path to
be set. Play back the saved data using one of Windows' audio players:
Sound Recorder, Windows Media Player, Real Player, RecAll, Total Recorder etc.

| In respect of this facility, Sandy Abel pointed out that:
| In addition to setting The Maximum Recording Period for the amount of audio
|recorded to your drive in one session. Parameters/Listen Time also needs to be
|set for the length of time recorded for each contact/patch ie:- 100 = 100
|seconds, if the contact/patch finishes before 100 secs are reached the program
|automatically resumes scanning, the same also happens when 100 secs have
| On one of my computers, this facility seems to record any activity
|it feels like, and in the root directory of the hard disc too, despite my
|having set aside a dedicated folder for these recordings!

Interpreting What You Receive.

 (The following OWLOG.TXT file entries are squashed horizontally to fit
the page. They are otherwise quite genuine intercepts from 3/4 May 2000).

 ('Trace' ticked)

[11:37:09][FRQ 17487000][SND][HHS     ][TIS][          ][AL0] BER 13 SN 03

[11:39:15][FRQ 27870000][SND][HAW     ][TWS][          ][AL0] BER 21 SN 07

 ('Trace' off)

[12:16:12][FRQ 10238000][TO ][CH11    ][TIS][KAI1      ][AL0] BER 28 SN 19

 Each of the items of the program's output is enclosed in square
brackets. (Boxes).


[11:37:09]             The time the ALE activity was detected, taken
                       from your computer's time, but note: If the time
Time Box               is one hour ahead of UTC, then there is an
                       environment variable somewhere which is causing
                       the program to add an hour. Usually this is caused
                       by the SET TZ environment setting in AUTOEXEC.BAT.
                       REM it out or delete it.


[FRQ 1748700]

Frequency              If you are scanning and have ticked the 'Freq
Box                    display' box in Config|Options, this box will
                       indicate the frequency on which the activity
                       was detected rather than the channel number (CH)
                       (in Hz).

                       WARNING: if you are unable to scan, then please
                       untick the 'Freq display' box, otherwise the boxes
                       probably won't display properly.

                       If you are scanning and have not ticked the
                       'Freq display' box in Config|Options, then the
                       Channel Number only will be displayed. (Channel
                       Numbers are assigned to successive frequencies
                       in a scan file commencing with CH 00). To convert
                       the channel number to frequency you will have to
                       look it up in Channels|List.



Trace Derived Info     If 'Trace' is ticked, then this information will
Box                    be output, otherwise it is suppressed. It is
                       probably here that any 'opchat' will be seen.
                       It includes the channel number.
                       Can contain {TIS   ] and [TWS    ]
                       (Significance of [R} is not unknown).

                       Note: I cannot say much more about the Trace and
                       Command Trace facilities as I don't fully
                       understand them. Perhaps someone else....?
                       See also the note on Trace under 'additional
                       tips', by the program's author earlier on in
                       this discussion.


[CHN 18]

Channel No             The channel number. In single frequency
Box                    operation this will be 00.


[SND][HHS            ]

Type of                Can be [SND    ]  or  [TO           ]
Transmission/Address   SND = the station is 'sounding', i.e. announcing
Boxes                  its presence and transmitting a signal for link
                       quality assessment by other stations in the net.

                       TO = the designation of the intended recipient
                       of the ALE burst which will appear in the next

[TO ][CH11           ][TIS][KAI1           ]

                       With [SOUND   ] the ident of the SENDING station.
                       With [TO      ] the ident of the individual
                       station to which the ALE activity is being
                       Here KAI1 is sending to CH11.

TIS/TWS Box:           [TIS] = 'tis - i.e. 'it is', 'this is'.
                       The identity of the sending station, which will
                       be found in the next box. This is blank on
                       sounding transmissions, when the sender is found
                       in the address box.

                       [TWS] = 'twas - i.e 'this was'.
                       This seems to be a sort of termination
                       signal, present with sounding transmissions and
                       seen on termination of Danish Military data


[AL0] BER 28 SN 19

AL Box:                Application Level indicator.
                       Some users obviously need to protect their ALE
                       setup information from prying (WUN!) eyes, so
                       the setup information is encrypted.

                       AL0 = No Encryption.
                       AL1 = Unclassified, 24-bit lattice encryption with
                             a 1-minute protection interval.
                       AL2 = Unclassified.
                       AL3 = Unclassified but sensitive.
                       AL4 = Classified

                       Each ALE word is encrypted by XORing it with an
                       enciphered seed. The seed is a function of the
                       time of day, the frequency and an incrementing

                       Not much to be exploited here, and you'll only
                       ever see AL0, but it probably explains those
                       very occasional good quality ALE bursts  which
                       just won't synch - they're encrypted.

BER Box:               This is your monitoring system's ratings of the
                       signals it has recorded. SN being a signal-to
                       noise ratio. The higher the value the better the



 All ALE activity monitored and shown on the screen is saved in this file,
so that even if you clear the receive screen (first icon on the ALE taskbar)
the data isn't lost. It's an ASCII file, so it can be read with a text editor
such as Notepad and printed for later analysis if required. The system
doesn't start a new file with each listening session, new data is appended
to the previous data along with the date. Be aware of that extra hour
that may possibly be added to the times by the program.

 Note: this may well be a Windows function related to the time-zone
which Windows is using and may only be a problem where daylight
saving is in force. UK WUN-ers who want to keep their computer on
UTC should set their country as: '(GMT) Casablanca, Monrovia' in
Control Panel|Date/Time. This prevents Windows from messing about
with the computer's time when BST comes into force.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################


 The program is designed to scan a list of up to 100 frequencies with
a suitable receiver and control system.

 The receivers now supported directly by the program are:

    EK890 FRG100, FT1000MP, FT757GX, FT847, GENERIC, HF1000, IC706,
    IC707, IC726, IC735, IC746, NRD535, NRD545, IC-R75, IC-R8500, RX320,
    SKANTI-825, TS850, TT550 and WJ8711.

 Indirectly, additional receivers are supported where their serial control
parameters and internal microprocessor systems correspond to a receiver
type supported by the program. For example, the IC735 and IC736 have
identical serial control mechanisms so that the IC736 can be used with
the IC735 settings; the IC-R75 can be used with the IC706 selected.
(Although there would be no point, as the R75 is catered for).

Receiver Compatibilities & Parameters.

Your Receiver:    Select        Serial     Machine
                  Radio         Port       Hex
                  Type:         Speed      Address
-------------     ------        ------     -------

IC736             IC735         1200         04  Set on Rx
IC-R75            R75           19200 (HI)   5A  Set on Rx
IC-R8500          R8500         19200 ?      4A  Set on Rx ?
TS870             TS850         4800         ??
NRD545            NRD545        4800         --  Automatic

Perhaps others can add to this list.

 These notes, from Alan Doherty, may help those who do not have a
supported or compatible receiver:

"Hi All,
 If your receiver is not yet supported in ALE V1.03d, and you want to
 try scanning several ALE channels, read on. I tried a little messing
 around with separate scan programs. First I loaded several ALE
 frequencies into Scancat for Windows, and set it up to stop on a
 station, had about 70% success on the stronger signals. Then I
 programmed my Kenwood TS-870 memories with the same channels, the
 success rate was not as good this time as the squelch had to be set
 quite high to enable the scan. One problem with this method, you won't
 get a log of the active frequencies, but all in all it still proved to
 be better than sitting for hours and hours monitoring a single channel !
 This setup should work for any computer controlled receiver and
 compatible software.

 BTW, for any TS-870 users if you set the baud rate to 4800 and choose
 the TS-850 setting, it works more or less as it should do from within
 the ALE software, (though the mode changeover does not work).

 Have fun...73 de Alan Doherty, GI0OTC"

 There is a method whereby unsupported receivers can be used to
scan via the 'GENERIC' receiver setting. This seems to involve an
additional runtime file. I can get some details of this, but be
warned : it just isn't for the faint-hearted!

 No additional connections are required to scan other than your usual
rig-control interface e.g. CI-V for Icom. A squelch detect line is not
necessary as the ALE program doesn't rely on squelch: it will hold up
the scan when it detects a genuine ALE signal, process it and then
restart the scan.

 As an aside: if you don't have the (expensive) CI-V for Icom, I have some
economy homebrew designs which will do the same job.

 You will also require to connect your receiver's audio output to the
soundcard and ensure that the soundcard can pass the audio to the ALE

 The audio is usually input via the LineIn jack socket on the sound
card, although I did have one soundcard which would only accept input on
the MicIn socket. I connect the receiver output to both right and left
channels on the soundcard. (Connect audio 'hot' to both tip and ring,
and ground/earth/0V to sleeve on the plug which goes into the soundcard
LineIn socket).

 To make sure the sound system's inputs are correctly configured:

   o  Double click on the speaker icon on the taskbar.

   o  Ensure that in the Line In panel the box 'Mute' is not ticked
      and that the volume slider is around 75% of the way up.

   o  Whilst you are there, Using the PDM Options|Properties, press the
      'Recording' button, followed by [OK]. Ensure that the 'Select' box
      is ticked in the Line In panel.

   o  Close the Volume Control applet and ensure that there is some
      response in the ALE program's 'Tune' window to noise or to a signal
      from the receiver. If not, adjust the volume settings in software
      and/or in hardware.

 If you use the Mic socket on the soundcard, then substitute 'Mic' for
'Line In' in the instructions above.

|(This is covered in more detail below).

Program Settings

 In PDM Configuration|Options, select the appropriate radio in 'Radio Type'
(top right) and the appropriate 'Radio Com Port' in the Parameters panel
at bottom right. There may be scope for playing with the 'RX Audio Level'
setting, but I haven't tried this. Mine's set to 50. If you find that
the program lingers too long on a frequency after detecting and
processing ALE, adjust the 'Listen Time' box. Mine is set to 10.

Making a Scan File

Use the PDM Channels|Add:

 o In the dialog box, in 'RX/Frequency' enter the frequency in Hz.
   (Eight digits for frequencies above 10 MHz, seven digits for
   frequencies below 10 MHz). i.e. 10581 kHz is entered as 10581000,
   2250 Khz is entered as 2250000.

  o 'Mode': enter either USB or LSB. Most ALE seems to be on USB.

  o 'Usage': doesn't seem to matter - Set them all to DATA. This
    way you will be able to see any [AMD] (chat and other text material
    embedded in the ALE burst) - practically essential when monitoring
    USAF ALE, as it reveals opchat and auto 'phone-patch setup info.

  o 'Permission': set to RX.

You don't need to enter a TX frequency.

 Apart from the 'Groups' tick box, which I'll deal with later, ignore
all the other boxes.

 The PDM 'Channels' allows you to Add, Delete, Modify and List channels,
all of which are self-explanatory. 'Goto' will set the receiver to the
selected channel.

Organising Scan Files.

 100 frequencies is a lot to scan through if all the activity is in a
subset of those!

 The ALE Controller program has a built-in means of grouping its channels,
which allows frequencies to be assigned to a particular group. This
will permit, for example separate lists of day and night frequencies
within the same scan file. (E.g. day frequencies are marked Group 'A' and
night ones Group 'B'.) A scan file could be split into, for example,
a list with the higher (day) frequencies designated Group A and
the lower (night) frequencies as Group B. Frequencies of an 'intermediate'
nature (appropriate to day and night groups) can both be ticked and will
be scanned in both groups. A single frequency can belong to up to eight
groups, A-H. When creating a scan file, indicate the group to which the
frequency belongs by ticking one or more of the 'Groups' boxes A to H in
Channels|Add/Delete/Modify. If you are modifying the scanfile with a text
editor, the group parameter is at column 37.

 Note: you can only have a maximum of 100 frequencies in any one scan

 To scan a particular group: before starting the scanner, use the PDM
Configuration|Options and tick the group you wish to scan (one group
only allowed), OK out of the box and hit the scan button. This is the
5th button on the toolbar - a triangle. To pause (stop) the scan hit
the 4th button - the double bar. The first button - the white oblong
clears the receive screen. The processed data is still available,
however, in the file OWLOG.TXT.

 You may find, with some older, slower receivers, particularly Icoms,
that if you mix USB and LSB channels, the receiver will be unable to go
back to USB immediately after scanning through an LSB channel. As
explained below by the program's author, this is a fault of the Icom
system. It isn't a problem with the IC706 and the IC-R75 which uses the
same control system.

 It sometimes happens that pressing the 'Scan' button does not start
the receiver scanning. The info box at bottom left of the screen is
giving every indication that the scan has started, but the receiver
is not scanning. This will happen sometime when changes are made to
some items in Configurations|Options. If you are satisfied that the
receiver control hardware is correctly set up, close the ALE Controller
program and restart it. The 'Scan' button will now work. If not, then
you will have to check the hardware installation and check also that the
receiver's  serial speed and address are correct.  Check also that all
the frequencies in the scanfile are not all set to a group other than
that which you have selected to scan. I.e all the frequencies in the
scanfile are set to group A and you have selected to scan group B
in Configuration|Options.

 There are three scan rates, 1, 2 and 5, which can be selected from the
PDM Configuration|Options. 5 is fastest. I seem to catch more activity with
it set to 2 rather than 5. The 5 rate is a bit too fast as the receiver's
AGC recovery time plus the latency in the Windows operating system
means the receiver is taking too long to recover its sensitivity and so
bursts are often missed. However, with modern receivers this will not be
a problem. Charles explained this and pointed out that he has not yet
perfected the scan stop routine. The ALE word takes 392 mS to send, so
you will notice that some good bursts get lost. Having said that, he
may well now have incorporated these enhancements to v1.03j.

 Note: changing the scan group or scan speed in Configuration|Options does
not require a program restart.

 Inputing a long scan file via Channels|Add can be a fairly long-winded
process.   After having built a scan file by this method, you can
export it via the PDM Fill|Dump. This will save the scan file information
to disc, via a standard file dialogue box, as an ASCII file with whatever
name you may wish to give it, in a directory of your choice. It will
have a '.QRG extension by default).

 With care you can add, modify, delete and rearrange the frequency
information stored in a .QRG file. Use a text editor such as Notepad
to make changes, but be very careful to change only the frequency and
scan group information. To add a frequency I usually copy a line and then
overtype it with the frequency to be added. Watch the shorter line
lengths for frequencies below 10 MHz. With a little imagination, you
can construct completely new scan files from scratch this way. But
no more than 100 frequencies, please.

 When you've done your modifications, save the file and go back into
the ALE program. If you now select PDM Fill|Load, the modified scan
file can be loaded back in from disc and used by the scanner.
If you get a 'SYNTAX ERROR' during the load process, this probably
means no more than a surplus line feed at the very end of the scan file.
This is harmless and you can use the file without any problems.

 This process can be used to generate a selection of scan files. You
could have, for example, USAF, DIPLO and UNIDS scan files, all
different and separate from each other, loaded as and when required.
Long scanfiles can be split up into ranges such as DIP5-9.QRG;
DIP16UP.QRG etc.

Note: DUMP.TXT files from earlier versions of the program can be used
simply by changing their extensions to .QRG.

  Load in scanfiles via Fill|Load which offers a standard Windows
file dialogue. To save a scanfile modified with Channels|Add,
Channels|Delete or Channels|Modify, use the PDM Fill|Dump.

 To get Fill to look for scanfiles in the directory of your choice
rather than a directory of Windows' choosing, right click on the ALE
icon on your desktop, select Properties and enter the directory of your
choice in the 'Start In' box, then hit OK. You do of course have this icon
on your desktop??!

 I have available a DOS program which will generate an ALE scan file
which takes its input from the keyboard or from a list of frequencies
in an ASCII text file. As it is a DOS program, it seems that it will
have only limited application in versions of Windows above 98SE, which
don't permit easy access to DOS. If you want it, please ask.

 I also built into it a facility to generate 'search' files, where start
and end frequencies as well as a frequency step can be input. However....
as the ALE program's scan files are limited to 100 entries, this facility
is of questionable utility. If you set the step size to 1 kHz, the usual
allocation step size, you'll only be able to search 100 kHz at a time,
which isn't particularly useful.

 This idea was first implemented by Day Watson some time in 2001. He
produced working programs, but wasn't then able to compile them into
stand-alone .EXE files which would run in a DOS box without needing
runtime support libraries. The ones I have will run without any
additional support and I am struggling (and how!) with programming a
Windows version, but cannot at this time promise anything.

 Day Watson has now completed a simple but adequate Windows progette to
allow a series of frequencies to be input to an ALE .QRG file. It
requires a couple of extra runtime support files, but it does the job.
I dare say that, if you ask him nicely, he would supply a copy.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

>From the author of the program:

Reply-To: Charles Brain 

Hello Folks,

Frequencies are entered in Hz

 You can add up to 100 frequencies then put them into different scan groups
so you can scan different groups at different times. Membership of a scan 
group is done from the channel dialog box and the current scan group is 
selected from the options dialog.
 When adding a freq you only need to input the RX frequency.

 The software was not originally written for the SWL community hence the
reason for channels rather than frequencies in the display, to a non
technical user frequencies mean nothing.

[ *****  This has been fixed from V1.03d on. Frequency display is now *****]
[ *****  an available option. Thanks Charles.                         *****]

 The problem with the USB/LSB switching is due to older Icom radios not
being able to process more than one command at a time, if you send two
commands in quick succession only the second one will be processed. I added
timing/queing mechanism to get round this but obviously the timeout period
is too short, its fine on my IC706.  [ **** and on the R75 **** ]

 The reason so few radios are supported is that I only have 3 different SW
radios here so I have to rely on other people to supply information / test
the software. Also the ALE S/W comes last in priority, well behind stuff
that makes me money, sorry.

 I do listen to people's comments and will make changes when I am able to.

- Thanks

- Charles G4GUO

 Since the above was written, Charles has indicated that there are unlikely
to be any further development of the ALE Controller program. He has other
thing to do - like earning a living. Nonetheless, thank you again, Charles.

| However, in the event that Charles tires of earning a living and decides to
| apply himself once more to PC-ALE, there are one or two enhancements which I
| personally would love to see, like:
|   o   longer scanfiles;
|   o   an indication of the sideband on which activity has been
|       detected - both on the screen and in the OWLOG.TXT file; and
|   o   an indication of the name of the scanfile being run, preferrably on
|       the screen, but in the OWLOG.TXT file as well if possible.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

                     PCAle Controller - PC-ALE Project

                      Introduction to PCALE  v 1.03 g

  A few years ago I started on the development of an ALE system for the P.C.
which started as a training exercise in DSP and grew from there.
The links below provide some light bedtime reading, for those insomniacs
amongst you.
          ALE SOUND taken from NTIA test disk)

          Final Version of MIL-STD 188-141B (1.5 M zipped )
             ITS ALE Users Handbook (Offsite Link)
  The controllers database can be saved to floppy disk in man readable form
and then distributed to all users of the net, this allows centralised net
  Since writing the above I have now restarted work on this because I am
using it to provide a backup orderwire for my digital voice experiments.
The software has become quite popular in the Utility listening community.
I am gradually adding new radios but this has to take second place to my
more commercial work.

  I have recently entirely re-written all the signal processing modules and
those of you used to previous versions of the software hopefully will find
from version G onwards a significant improvement in performance. The software
is now totally free of any Intel DSP code.

  If you would like to try this software it may be downloaded using the link
below. You will need at least a 133 Mhz Pentium and a soundcard. Also this
software is highly experimental so may not work on your machine. Limited
technical support will be provided via Email.

  It is best to download both files, install the first file then copy the
second file to the sub directory that contains the executable.

  If you have any problems I would appreciate knowing about them, so I can
correct them in a latter release.
  There now exists an FAQ for this software which can be found at the WUN
  Software for Win95 Floppy Version (G) 1.8 MB

  Latest executable Ver 1.03k (only for upgrading current version)
############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

Additional Information.

 Here are some frequencies, with users where known. Start with the USAF
frequencies as the USAF is a prolific ALE user. In Europe, look at 2250,
4841 and 5120 kHz (Danish Military) initially to get a feel for the system.

 It's also useful to build up some sort of database or list of ALE
frequencies from the logs submitted to the WUN server by stalwarts such
as Jack Metcalf, Sandy Abel (USAF expert), Day Watson and others. I will
be happy to provide such files as I have available by EMail to whoever
may require them. Please ask.


 Bear in mind that ALE itself is only a setup system for some other
system, which may be either data or voice. So what you are looking at
is often merely the setup, not the link itself. The link it sets up will
not necessarily turn up on the frequency you get the ALE data on, although
sometimes it does. The Danish Military for example often send data bursts
on 2250/4841/5120 kHz following ALE activity.

 WUN member Mike Chace maintains a useful database of frequencies and
ALE identifiers. Mike sees many ALE loggings marked 'UNID' which can be
readily identified from the ALE-IDs database located at his Utility
Monitoring Central site at:

Freq:   User:                     Freq:   User:
----    ----                      ----    ----

 2250   Danish Mil                10190   ALGERIAN
 4721   USAF                      10581   Swedish Diplo
 4841   Danish Mil                11073.5 USAF
 5120   Danish Mil                13215   USAF
 5784   Unid Diplo                13375   UNID
 6481   Unid Diplo                13390   Unid Diplo
 6689   Unid Diplo                15016   USAF
 6715   USAF                      15043   USAF
 6721   USAF                      15860   Swed Diplo
 6863   Romanian Diplo            16105   Swed Diplo
 6889   Romanian Diplo            16105   USAF
 6980   Swedish Diplo             18003   USAF
 6981   Unid Diplo                19060   UNID
 7375   ALGERIAN                  19340   Austrian UN
 7375   USAF                      20031   USAF
 7672   USAF                      20958   Swed Diplo
 7972   Swedish Diplo             23337   USAF
 8965   USAF                      24268   Unid Diplo
                                  27870   USAF
All USB.

(Some of these may be inactive now : keep an eye on the WUN logs for
up-to-date loggings).

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################


 The addresses used in ALE activity can vary from the obvious to
the obscure.

 USAF ground stations are usually identified by the last three letters
of the station's ICAO location indicator; Swedish diplomatic entities
are identified by 'S' followed by two figures, amost all of which are
common knowledge to WUN-ers. Others such as Chinese diplomats are identified
by such as 'Z1234' which tells us little. On the other hand, Danish military
stations often use callsigns from the International series, such as OWD,
many of which have been identified.

 USAF aircraft using ALE employ a string of numbers as ALE identifiers
which can easily be converted to tail numbers and thence to aircraft
type. This information, provided by Sandy Abel, is appended to this

 I also have a database of frequencies. You can't have the database, but
you can EMail me for possible identification of a frequency. Or ask via
the WUN Listserver - someone may know.

 (Actually you can have the database, but interpreting/making use of
it would be another matter - and it would be out-of-date in 24 hours!)

 Finally a plea. Please submit your logs in the WUN format if you wish
them to go into the monthly Newsletter. This example shows how you
should do it:

Raw data from the screen or OWLOG.TXT:

[16:42:13][FRQ 12101000][TO      ][S00            ][TIS][S51            ]

is logged in the form Freq Call: ID Time Mode Traffic/Remarks Date Sig

as something like:

12101   S51: Swedish Embassy Teheran 1642 ALE/USB Calls S00/MFA Stockholm
        (25/02/01) (ABC)

[19:01:05][FRQ  7966000][SOUND   ][5556           ][TIS][               ]

as, for example:

07966   5556: Unid 1901 ALE/LSB Sounds. (15/Feb/01) (AW)

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

An Interpretation Exercise

 This came via my IC736 ALE scan program while I was writing a previous
version of these notes. The activity record comes from the OWLOG.TXT

 I've cut off rightmost [AL] and [BER] data to keep the line length
reasonable - it's irrelevant to this discussion anyway.

1....Some Swedish Diplo:

[20:07:17][FRQ  6980000][TO      ][S17            ][TIS][S00            ]
[20:10:06][FRQ  7972000][TO      ][S17            ][TIS][S00            ]

 At 2007 UTC, MFA Stockholm [S00] calls its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine, [S17]
twice. Once on 6980 kHz and three minutes later on 7972 kHz.


[16:42:13][FRQ 12101000][TO      ][S00            ][TIS][S51            ]
[16:45:13][FRQ 18686000][TO      ][S51            ][TIS][S00            ]

 In this item the Swedish embassy in Teheran, Iran [S51] calls MFA Stockholm
on 12101 kHz at 1642UTC. MFA Stockholm returns the call three minutes later
on 18686 kHz.



[19:01:05][FRQ  7966000][SOUND   ][5556           ][TIS][               ]

 At 1901 UTC the unidentified Algerian(?) station 5556 makes its presence
known on 7966 kHz.


3....Odds & Ends.

[19:48:51][FRQ  8130000][TO      ][KARIM3         ][TIS][O13            ]

 At 1948 on the same day, an unidentified outstation [O13] calls the
Ministry of Information [KARIM3] in Algiers, on 8130 kHz. (The actual
identification of KARIM3 has yet to be confirmed).

[19:54:29][FRQ  8130000][TO      ][C13            ][TIS][O13            ]

 Later, our unidentified friend [O13] calls another unknown outstation
[C13] on 8130 kHz.

[19:26:47][FRQ  7620000][TO      ][VKZ            ][TIS][VKF            ]

 At 1926UTC on another day, unidentified user VKF calls another unidentified
user VKZ on 7620 kHz. These are suspected to be Australian military or
air force stations using their international callsigns.


4....And Finally...

[14:10:06][FRQ 13370][SOUND   ][PLA            ][TWS][               ]
[14:10:14][FRQ 18003][SOUND   ][PLA            ][TWS][               ]
[14:11:00][FRQ 27870][SOUND   ][JNR            ][TWS][               ]

 At 1410, PLA (Lajes Field, Azores (USAF)) sounds on 23370 and 18003 kHz,
and a minute later, on 27870 kHz, Salinas/Roosevelt Roads AFB, Puerto Rico
sounds for link quality assessment.

 That's it.

 Thanks are due to Charles Brain, who did the really difficult work, Day
Watson, Jack Metcalf, Sandy Abel, Mike Chace, Leif Dehio and Alan Doherty.
Apologies to anyone I may have overlooked.

 Enjoy your ALE.

(Jim Dunnett, 23 January 2002).

|Updated 7 April 2003)




 This appendix is tacked on here because the USAF is the most prolific
user of ALE, and as such is an excellent introduction to monitoring
the system.

 There follows a compilation of the most important information. This
section is almost entirely due to the efforts of Sandy Abel, a prolific
USAF logger.

Below is a list of USAF aircraft:- C-5 GALAXY, C-17 GLOBEMASTER,
C-9 NIGHTINGALE (I have never copied one), HC/MC-130 (only ever copied two)
I have not included the C-9 or the HC/MC-130 in the list.

                          Tail Numbers           ALE ID Series

                      66-8303  TO  66-8307       168303-168307
                      67-0167  TO  67-0174       170167-170174
                      68-0211  TO  68-0228       180211-180228
                      69-0001  TO  69-0027       190001-190027
                      70-0445  TO  70-0467       100445-100467
                      83-1285                    131285
                      84-0059  TO  84-0062       140059-140062
                      85-0001  TO  85-0010       150001-150010
                      86-0011  TO  86-0026       160011-160026
                      87-0027  TO  87-0045       170027-170045

                      87-0025                    270025
                      88-0265  TO  88-0266       280265-280266
                      89-1189  TO  89-1192       291189-291192
                      90-0532  TO  90-0535       200532-200535
                      92-3291  TO  92-3294       223291-223294
                      93-0599  TO  93-0604       230599-230604
                      94-0065  TO  94-0070       240065-240070
                      95-0102  TO  95-0107       250102-250107
                      96-0001  TO  96-0008       260001-260008
                      97-0041  TO  97-0048       270041-270048
                      98-0049  TO  98-0057       280049-280057
                      99-0058  TO  99-0064       290058-290064
                      99-0165  TO  99-0170       290165-290170
                      00-0171  TO  00-0185       200171-200185

                      61-2778                    312778
                      63-8076  TO  63-8088       338076-338088
                      64-0611  TO  64-0645       340611-340645
                      65-0216  TO  65-0279       350216-350279
                      65-9401  TO  65-9414       359401-359414
                      66-0130  TO  66-0206       360130-360206
                      66-7944  TO  66-7959       367944-367959
                      67-0002  TO  67-0031       370002-370031
                      67-0165  TO  67-0166       370165-370166

                          Tail Numbers           ALE ID Series

                      79-0433  TO  79-0434       490433-490434
                      79-1710  TO  79-1713       491710-491713
                      79-1946  TO  79-1950       491946-491950
                      82-0191  TO  82-0193       420191-420193
                      83-0075  TO  83-0082       430075-430082
                      84-0185  TO  84-0192       440185-440192
                      85-0027  TO  85-0032       450027-450032
                      86-0027  TO  86-0038       460027-460038
                      87-0117  TO  87-0124       470117-470124

                      55-3132  TO  55-3146       553132-553146
                      56-3593  TO  56-3658       563593-563658
                      57-1418  TO  57-1514       571418-571514
                      57-2589  TO  57-2608       572589-572608
                      58-0001  TO  58-0130       580001-580130
                      59-1444  TO  59-1523       591444-591523
                      60-0313  TO  60-0376       500313-500376
                      61-0264  TO  61-0330       510264-510330
                      61-2662  TO  61-2672       512662-512672
                      62-3498  TO  62-3582       523498-523582
                      62-4125  TO  62-4139       524125-524139
                      63-7976  TO  63-8061       537976-538061
                      63-8871  TO  63-8888       538871-538888
                      63-9792                    539792
                      64-14828  TO  64-14849     544828-544849

                      71-1407  TO  71-1408       E31407-E31408
                      73-1674  TO  73-1675       E31674-E31675
                      75-0556  TO  75-0560       E30556-E30560
                      76-1604  TO  76-1607       E31604-E31607
                      77-0351  TO  77-0356       E30351-E30356
                      78-0576  TO  78-0578       E30576-E30578
                      79-0001  TO  79-0003       E30001-E30003
                      80-0137  TO  80-0139       E30137-E30139
                      81-0004  TO  81-0005       E30004-E30005
                      82-0006  TO  82-0007       E30006-E30007
                      83-0008  TO  83-0009       E30008-E30009

| These are only intended to be a guide. I have available a database
|of USAF ALE IDs, mostly derived from Sandy's loggings, which is available
|for the asking. It's in ASCII with one entry per line.

Some other ALE addresses of aircraft worth noting:-

           ALE       Aircraft

           512669    S-99(C-135C 61-26690)
                          Usual voice callsign TROUT-99
           AF5       C-20C 85-0049
           AF6       C-20C 85-0050
           AF7       C-20C 86-0403
           AF8       VC-25A 82-8000
           AF9       VC-25A 82-9000
           NW1/4     E-4B (NW = Night Watch)

Some Further Special Exceptions.

(Not guaranteed to be current)

           ALE       Aircraft                 Voice Call

           512669    C-135 'Speckled Trout'   Trout 99
           599       C-135 'Speckled Trout'   Trout 99
           AF2       Air Force Two            Air Force 2
                         (Presidential a/c)
           AF5       85-0049                  SAM 049
                         (Secret Service a/c)
           AF6       85-0050                  SAM 050
                         (Secret Service a/c)
           AF7       86-0403                  SAM 403
                         (Secret Service a/c)
           AF8       82-8000                  Air Force 1
                         (Presidential a/c)
           AF9       82-9000                  SAM 29000
                         (Presidential a/c)
           CO1       KC135 57-2589            Casey 01
           HMX263    VH60N 163263             Marine 1
                         (Presidential helo)
           NW1-NW4   E-48 NAOC Aircraft       Nightwatch 01-04

           352       352 SOG Mildenhall
           353       353 SOG Kadena AFB
           459       459 AS Andrews AFB
           16F       16 SOW Hulburt AFB
           16T       16 OSS Hulburt AFB
           23A       23 CCS Charleston AFB
           51T       51 CCS Robins AFB
           52T       52 CCS Robins AFB
           53T       53 CCS Robins AFB
           66A       66 CCS McChord AFB

Sandy also mentions that, recently, some aircraft have been seen
using their SELCAL IDs as ALE IDs, as in this log extract:

"11226   DPCS: unid 1647 ALE/USB Wkg PLA (13Jan02) (SA)"

He says "DPCS matches the SELCAL for C-5 87-0040. Before I can be
certain I will have to check through all my logs to find more

Some Base addresses:

AED = Elmendorf AFB AK
ADW = Andrews AFB MD
CEF = Westover AFB NY
CHS = Charleston AFB SC
CRO = Croughton UK (Remote station answered by Andrews)
DDF = Frankfurt Germany
DOV = Dover AFB DE
DVL = Devils Lake Municipal ND (?)
GTL = Thule Greenland
GUA = Anderson AB Guam
HAW = Ascension Island
HIK = Hickam AFB HI
ICZ = Sigonella AB Italy
JDG = NAS Diego Garcia Indian Ocean
JNR = Salinas/Roosevelt Roads Peurto Rico (Remote Station)
JTY = Yokota Japan
MCC = McLellan AFB CA
MET = Weather Shop Scott AFB IL (Hilda Metro)
OFF = Offutt AFB NE
PLA = Lajes Field Azores
RIC = CAP Richmond VA
RSC = Rockwell Centre Cedar Rapids IA
TAE = East Cell Scott AFB IL (Hilda East)
TAG = Incirlik Turkey
TAR = Ramstein Germany
TAW = West Cell Scott AFB IL (Hilda West)

ALE Network Frequencies (in kHz USB)

3059  3137  4721  5708  6715  6721  7632  8965  9025  9057

11226 11250 13215 15043 18003 20631 23337 27870

Also 11175.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

USAF [AMD] Auto 'Phone-Patch Strings

 USAF DSN numbers are regularly seen with ALE-initiated 'phone-patch
traffic. They are designed to connect an ALE-equipped facility to the
required DSN number automatically by direct dialling. The DSN is the
world-wide US military telephone network. It also permits connection
to the commercial telephone network.

 The direct dial strings take the form:



 In the first instance, the CCCC is the header string and the NNNN a
trailer string. These mark the beginning and end of a direct-dial
instruction. The D indicates direct-dialling from the number following.
A number commencing with 8 indicates that the number following is a
DSN number, a 9 indicates a commercial (toll) number.

 In the instruction [AMD]CCCCPTAENNNN, ignoring the CCCC and NNNN, the
letter P indicates a pre-programmed telephone number. In this case
the designator TAE, (Hilda East).

 Ignoring the CCCCD8 header and the NNNN trailer in the second example
leaves us with the DSN number 314-676-3286 (Incirlik AMCC). 314 is the
Area Code (Europe), 676 the Base Code (Incirlik) and 3286 is an
extension at Incerlik assigned to the AMCC. The area codes are:

312 - Continental US    314 - Europe    315 - Pacific
317 - Alaska            318 - Central (Bahrain, Kuwait, Mid-East)
319 - Canada

 CCCCD9943143308635NNNN would indicate a commercial telephone number
was being dialled.

############################   --o-o-O-o-o--  ##########################

  From Sandy Abel, a list of the known DSN numbers in Europe and the

  Lajes as with some other GHFS Stations appears to have two
Base codes 245/535. " [Possibly, like the ConUS ones - one for access
from within the ConUS and one for access from without??]

314  Europe

314-238-2247  AMCC?
      238-2552  Metro
      238-2121  Banter Control

314-330-8742  AMCC
      330-7801  Command Post
      330-7471  Base Ops

314-480-2049  AMCC
      480-5922  AMCC
      480-2488  Metro
      480-5713  Base Ops

314-496-6145  Usafe Metro
314-496-6146  Usafe Metro

314-624-5371  Command Post
      624-5285  Metro
      624-8237  Base Ops

Souda Bay (Crete)

314-676-3286  AMCC
      676-6837  Command Post (ATOC?)

314-727-3766  AMCC
      727-2407  Base Ops
      727-2404  Metro

314-772-8221  Command Post
      772-9084  Metro
      772-8237  Base Ops

314-245-3514  Metro
314-535-4200  Command Post
314-535-4123  Command Post


There is a slight problem with the Base Codes for the ConUS. A few
bases have two codes ie:- 779/576 for Hilda, I believe one is for
dialling within ConUS and the other is for the rest of the world.
With Hilda 779 is the RoW and 576 is from within ConUS.

Scott AFB (HILDA) :-

        312-779/576-1748  Hilda East
              779/576-1749  Hilda West
              779/576-0301  Flight Manager/Dispatch
              779/576-4795  Metro

        312-858-3052  Command Post
              858-5826  Metro
              858-3411  Airforce Base Ops

        312-698-7788  Maniac Control
              698-7238  101St ARS (Ang)

        312-673-2531  Command Post
              673-3016  Metro

        312-445-4201  Command Post
              445-4175   Metro
              445-2861  Ops

Grand Forks:-
        312-362-6711  Nordic Control
              362-4396  Metro        
        312-382/984-2635  Command Post
              382/984-3434  Metro
              382/984-5611  Base Ops 

        312-743-3251  Shocker Control
              743-4424  Scheduling
        312-440/650-3935  Command Post
              440/650-3992  Metro
              440/650-2712  Base Ops

Offutt:- (Raymond-21)
        312-271-8478  Command Centre
              271-3459  Metro
              271-2398  Snoop Ops

Tinker (Raymond-24):-
        312-884-7317  Command Post
              884-5714  Metro
              884-7239  Ops

        312-468/497-2612  Command Post
              468/497-5052  Metro
              468/497-2114  Base Ops

        312-589-3571  Command Post (Casino Royalle)
              589-2879  Metro
              589-2581  Base Ops


 Many thanks to Sandy for taking the time to compile the information

 Apart from Sandy, the compilation of the material above has been made
possible thanks to the efforts of Ary Boender, Autovon, Graham Tanner and Mike

| The official DSN directory is available for download on the WWW from various
|sources. Do a Google search for "dsn directory" and download your personal


 And finally, this unusual situation is sometimes seen on the
USAF ALE channels:

[LINKED] and [CLEARED] indicates an 'AllCall' situation, where
the calling station calls all stations on the frequency and holds
them linked until cleared. Purpose of this isn't quite clear.

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